Baldwin V of Flanders (19 August 1012 – 5 June 1077) was Duke of Flanders from 1035 until his death.
He was the son of Baldwin IV, Duke of Flanders, who died in 1035.
In 1028 Baldwin married Adèle of France in Amiens, daughter of King Robert II of France; at her instigation he rebelled against his father but in 1030 peace was sworn and the old count continued to rule until his death.
During a long war (1046–1056) as an ally of Godfrey the Bearded, Duke of Lorraine, against the Holy Roman Emperor Henry III, he initially lost Valenciennes to Hermann of Hainaut. However, when the latter died in 1051 Baldwin married his son Baldwin VI to Herman’s widow Richildis and arranged that the sons of her first marriage were disinherited, thus de facto uniting the County of Hainaut with Flanders. Upon the death of Henry III this marriage was acknowledged by treaty by Agnes de Poitou, mother and regent of Henry IV. Baldwin V played host to a grateful dowager queen Emma of England, during her enforced exile, at Bruges. He supplied armed security guards, entertainment, comprising a band of minstrels. Bruges was a bustling commercial centre, and Emma fittingly grateful to the citizens. She dispensed generously to the poor, making contact with the monastery of Saint Bertin at St Omer, and received her son, King Harthacnut of England at Bruges in 1039.
From 1060 to 1066 Baldwin was the co-Regent with Anne of Kiev for his nephew-by-marriage Philip I of France, indicating the importance he had acquired in international politics. Baldwin supported the King of France in most affairs until Philip’s death in 1072, serving briefly as Master of Horse.
In 1070, Baldwin fought a war over Amiens, whose claim was disputed following the death of Count Raoul de Valois. Most historians agree that Baldwin instigated the war with slight pretext. In any case, Amiens was added to the demesne of Flanders when Simon de Valois, claimant to the county, was captured in late 1070 and Baldwin assumed the title.
During the troubles in France during the latter half of the 1070’s caused by the early death of Philip I of France and the ascension of Guillaume I, Baldwin sided with Robert of Burgandy, who supported the claim of Hugues, brother of Philip I, to the throne. After the deposition of Guillaume I, Baldwin was made Chancellor of France, which he held until his death in 1077.
Duke Baldwin V was of the House of Flanders (van Vlannderen)
Father: Duke Baldwin IV of Flanders
Mother: Ogiva of Luxemburg
Baldwin and Adèle had three children:
- Baldwin VI, Count of Hainaut
- Matilda, wife of Duke William of Normandy
- Robert I, Count of Zeeland